Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 mediates THP-1-derived macrophage activation dependent on NF-κB in endometriosis
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Macrophage-induced inflammation is a major factor in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. The underlying mechanisms, however, remain largely unknown. TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10 and C-C motif chemokine 20 (CCL20) levels in endometrial extracts were determined using Luminex cytokine kits. Additionally, protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) levels were measured using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR and western blotting.
IL-6 and IP-10 levels in cells were measured using ELISA kits. In the present study, it was revealed that PRMT5 expression at both the mRNA and protein levels in THP-1-derived macrophages was significantly decreased following treatment with serum or extracts of endometrium from patients with endometriosis in the presence of lipopolysaccharide, compared with that in control cells, suggesting a possible role for macrophage-derived PRMT5 in mediating the interaction between macrophages and endometrium in endometriosis.
Mechanistically, macrophage PRMT5 expression was regulated in an NF-κB-dependent and Smad2/3-independent manner, indicating that PRMT5 is a downstream target of NF-κB. Importantly, macrophage-derived PRMT5 was required for macrophage activation in endometriosis, as evidenced by the PRMT5-dependent secretion of IL-6 and IFN-γ-induced protein 10 from THP-1-derived macrophages.
The present study identified NF-κB-dependent PRMT5 as a novel regulator of macrophage activation in endometriosis. Targeting PRMT5 in macrophages may be a potential therapeutic strategy against endometriosis.
Activated platelets (PLTs) participate in the regulation of tumor angiogenesis, and tumors can activate PLTs. Whether co-culture of lung carcinoma with PLTs improves the function of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) requires further investigation.
The present study aimed to investigate the impact of H1975 cell crosstalk with PLTs on the proliferation, migration and tube formation of HUVECs. Following generation of cell-derived supernatants and construction of the co-culture system, Cell Counting Kit-8, flow cytometry, transmission electron microscopy and a meter for epithelial measurement were performed to detect the proliferative ability of HUVECs.
Furthermore, the wound healing and Transwell migration assays were performed to detect the migratory ability of HUVECs. A tube formation assay was performed to assess angiogenesis, ELISA was applied to detect the content of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and western blotting was carried out to measure the expression levels of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) in HUVECs.
Compared with single-cultured HUVECs (control), co-culture with H1975 cells and PLTs (Exp_HP) improved cell proliferation, increased the proportion of cells in the S-phase, destroyed the cell ultrastructure and decreased transepithelial electrical resistance in HUVECs.
In addition, a higher relative migration rate, greater number of migrated cells, stronger tube-forming ability and increased expression of VEGF and VEGFR2 were detected in the Exp_HP group compared with the control group. The properties of HUVECs in Exp_H (co-cultured with H1975 cells) were similar to those in Exp_HP, but significantly weaker.
Taken together, the results of the present study suggest that tumor cells interacting with PLTs may play an important role in tumor angiogenesis by affecting or mediating changes in the properties of vascular endothelial cells (VECs).
Serological assays are important tools to identify previous exposure to SARS-CoV-2, helping to track COVID-19 cases and determine the level of humoral response to SARS-CoV-2 infections and/or immunization to future vaccines. Here, the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity and high yield using a single chromatography step.
The purified SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein was used to develop an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the identification of human SARS-CoV-2 seroconverts. The assay sensitivity and specificity were determined analyzing sera from 140 RT-qPCR-confirmed COVID-19 cases and 210 pre-pandemic controls.
The assay operated with 90% sensitivity and 98% specificity; identical accuracies were obtained in head-to-head comparison with a commercial ELISA kit. Antigen-coated plates were stable for up to 3 months at 4 °C. The ELISA method described is ready for mass production and will be an additional tool to track COVID-19 cases.
Lichen planus is considered a chronic inflammatory disease which affects different sites, such as the skin, mucous membranes, hair, and nails. Based on the evidence, a complex cytokine network plays a crucial role in lichen planus pathogenesis. The study was aimed at assessing the serum IL-23 levels in the patients with cutaneous and oral lichen planus compared to healthy controls. Method.
The study included 30 cutaneous lichen planus patients, 20 oral lichen planus patients, and 33 control subjects. Five milliliters of peripheral blood was obtained from each patient, and the serum was separated. IL-23 levels were determined using the ELISA kit, and the data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test.
Results. IL-23 levels in the patient serum with oral lichen planus (P value ≤ 0.001) were significantly higher than in controls. Furthermore, there were significant differences in IL-23 serum levels in the patients with cutaneous lichen planus compared to the healthy controls (P value ≤ 0.001).
Moreover, IL-23 serum levels were statistically different between patients with cutaneous lichen planus and patients with oral lichen planus (P value ≤ 0.001). Based on the mean concentration of interleukin-23, IL-23 levels were higher in the patients with oral lichen planus than in the patients with cutaneous lichen planus.
Conclusions. Elevated serum IL-23 levels in the patients with oral lichen planus may indicate that IL-23 plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of oral lichen planus. However, more research is needed with a larger sample size.
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Kenya affecting cloven-hoofed ruminants. The epidemiology of the disease in small ruminants (SR) in Kenya is not documented. We carried out a cross-sectional study, the first in Kenya, to estimate the sero-prevalence of FMD in SR and the associated risk factors nationally. Selection of animals to be sampled used a multistage cluster sampling approach.
Serum samples totaling 7564 were screened for FMD antibodies of non-structural-proteins using ID Screen® NSP Competition ELISA kit. To identify the risk factors, generalized linear mixed effects (GLMM) logistic regression analysis with county and villages as random effect variables was used.
The country animal level sero-prevalence was 22.5% (95% CI: 22.3%-24.3%) while herd level sero-prevalence was 77.6% (95% CI: 73.9%-80.9%). The risk factor that was significantly positively associated with FMD sero-positivity in SR was multipurpose production type (OR = 1.307; p = 0.042). The risk factors that were significantly negatively associated with FMD sero-positivity were male sex (OR = 0.796; p = 0.007), young age (OR = 0.470; p = 0.010), and sedentary production zone (OR = 0.324; p<0.001).
There were no statistically significant intra class correlations among the random effect variables but interactions between age and sex variables among the studied animals were statistically significant (p = 0.019). This study showed that there may be widespread undetected virus circulation in SR indicated by the near ubiquitous spatial distribution of significant FMD sero-positivity in the country.
Strengthening of risk-based FMD surveillance in small ruminants is recommended. Adjustment of husbandry practices to control FMD in SR and in-contact species is suggested. Cross-transmission of FMD and more risk factors need to be researched.